Archive for the ‘Level 500 (1st year MA/Div)’ Category

TS501-2007 Vernacular Scriptures: The History and Impact of the Igbo Bible, 1840-1920

Saturday, March 21st, 2009

PDF Version: The-history-and-impact-of-the-igbo-bible-1840-1920

When in 1841 the Church Missionary Society (CMS) first began work among the Igbo people of what is today Southern Nigeria, they were eager to use translation of the Bible and other materials as a central part of their missionary strategy.  The missionaries, J. F. Schön, a German, and Samuel Crowther, a Yoruba, had already been working with the many Igbo among the freed slaves in Sierra Leone and had carried out some preliminary study of the language and translated various materials into Igbo.  It is surprising then that almost sixty years passed before a major translation of the Igbo Bible was completed, and that the first Igbo Bible to be circulated widely was not published until 1913.  Why did the Igbo Bible take more than seventy years to produce, and what was its eventual impact?

MS520-2009 A Biblical Theology of Medical Mission

Friday, March 20th, 2009

ms-520-btm-kf

Table of Contents
Introduction 1
Is a Theology of Medical Mission Necessary? 1
Questions Raised by Medical Mission 2
Should Mission Include Social Action? 4
God’s Plan for us to be Whole 5
What the Bible Says About Health 6
The Pentateuch 6
Books of History and Wisdom 7
The Prophets 9
The New Testament 9
Is Medicine the Same as Healing? 11
An Integrated View 13
Conclusion 14
Appendix: Bible Passages Addressing Sickness 16
Bibliography 19

Introduction
Medical mission has been a controversial subject in missiology. Some have argued that it takes resources and personnel away from evangelism, saying that our responsibility as Christians, and especially as missionaries, is to put all our energy into sharing the gospel. Certainly the practice of medical mission raises a number of questions about its role. In my own experience, it is easy to be so busy caring for the physical needs of patients that there is not time for spiritual activities. This is made more serious where missionaries are working among cultures which do not perceive a divide between physical and spiritual concerns. This paper will, therefore, consider what the Bible tells us about sickness and death and how this might affect medical mission. The aim is to provide a Biblical basis for those involved in medical mission, which will help them to prioritise and to ensure that their medical practice helps them achieve their missional aims. (more…)

TS720-2008 Special Topics in Translation Studies: The Future of Prehistoric Linguistics

Tuesday, July 15th, 2008

ts720b-rowbory-future-of-prehistoric-comparative-linguistics

 

The Future of Prehistoric Comparative Linguistics

A Review of Guthrie’s Comparative Bantu Methodology with Insights from Recent Relevant Literature on Comparative Linguistics, Language Change and Reconstructing Genetic Links and Suggestions Toward Contemporary Applications

David Rowbory

TS 720 Special Topics in Translation Studies • 1 July 2008

— Contents: —

0. Introduction 1

1. Comparative Linguistics: Guthrie’s Comparative Bantu Methodology 2

 

  • The process in brief 2
  • Comparative Bantu: An Overview 4

 

2. An Overview of Other Literature 5

 

  • Language Change (McMahon 1994) 5
  • African Languages: An Introduction (Heine & Nurse 2000) 6
  • Greenberg, Mathematical Models and Lexicostatistics (Fodor 1982) 8

 

3. Data Preparation 10

4. Simple Comparisons 12

 

  • Meaning as preferred connector 13
  • Underlying Assumptions 14

 

5. Systematising: Associated Comparisons and Comparative Series 15

 

  • Simple Computer-assistance 16
  • Assessment of the Computer-Assisted Comparison System 20

 

6. Inferring Relationships 22

 

  • Guthrie, Greenberg and Differing Interpretations 22

 

7. Possible Application Within and Beyond Bantu 23

 

  • The Point of Genetic and Other Classifications 24
  • Nigerian Languages 25

 

8. Conclusions and Further Study 26

9. Bibliography 28

(more…)

TS507-2008 Relative Clauses In Kikamba

Saturday, June 28th, 2008

PDF version: 08ts507c-rowbory-relative-clauses-kikamba

Relative Clauses in Kikamba

David Rowbory • 20 June 2008

Nairobi Evangelical Graduate School of Theology: Advanced Morphology & Syntax

Introduction

Kikamba is classified by Guthrie (1948) as Bantu language E55, related quite closely to Kikuyu. See Rowbory (2008) for more detail. Here we study morphological operations used in Kikamba to relativise nominals so as to produce a multi-clause (multi-predicate) sentence. The study has been somewhat hindered by many writers (whether casual writers, or in books such as Mbiti 1966) neglecting to use the full orthographic means to distinguish tone and some vowels. So, what should be written ĩ representing IPA [e] is often not distinguished from i (IPA [i]), though there is a definite phonological difference. The situation is similar with u / ũ (IPA [o]). The standard word order is SVO.

We began this study not with elicitation but by examining some texts from transcribed speech and translated stories and it became clear that Kikamba makes frequent use of restrictive relative clauses. However we found no unambiguous evidence of non-restrictive relatives, which merely comment on a noun phrase rather than delineating its reference. So for this paper we narrow our focus to treat only restrictive relative clauses, following Andrews (2006:207) who considers non-restrictive relatives to behave somewhat differently to relative clauses. Although Andrews considers questions and adverbial clauses to fall outside the scope of a typology of relative clauses, we touch on these briefly here since they seem to be related to relative clauses in Kikamba.

We explore the most common and obvious relativising strategy, the situations in which it may be used, and other relativisation strategies. We examine the grammatical categories (subject, direct object, oblique, indirect object etc) which may be relativised, and briefly mention the use of relative clauses in questions and the related use of headless relative clauses.

Natural texts were sourced from Mbiti (1966) and an interview with an elderly man recorded and conducted by a fellow student Michael Mwaka. Subsequent clarification, translation and elicitation was carried out with the help of Michael and our house help.

(more…)